"No War By Any Nation in Any Age Has Ever Been Declared by 'the People'."
There are history lessons and heroes we should never forget, but, alas, all too often do. The courageous actions of a few truly great men who’ve acted alone, driven by their conscience and unshakable high principles, have been buried by the sands of time. Given his unwavering adherence to high ideals for world peace and the good of mankind, Eugene Deb’s name belongs right up there with such iconic men of peace as Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King.
Socialist Party leader Eugene V. Debs spoke out against World War I, and all wars, in a speech on June 16, 1918 in Canton, Ohio. Because of this speech, Debs was arrested two weeks later, charged with ten counts of sedition, and sentenced to ten years in prison under the Espionage Act of 1917. While in prison, Debs ran for president in 1921 and received nearly one million votes. He served two years, eight months in prison before having his sentence commuted (for health reasons) by President Harding in 1921.
|Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926). Traitor or man of principle?|
Here are excerpts from Debs’s 1918 Canton speech:
"Wars throughout history have been waged for conquest and plunder. In the Middle Ages, when the feudal lords who inhabited the castles whose towers may still be seen along the Rhine concluded to enlarge their domains, to increase their power, their prestige and their wealth, they declared war upon one another.
"But they themselves did not go to war any more than the modern feudal lords, the barons of Wall Street, go to war. The feudal barons of the Middle Ages –– the economic predecessors of the capitalists of our day –– declared all wars. And their miserable serfs fought all the battles".
"And that is war in a nutshell. The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. The master class has had all to gain and nothing to lose, while the subject class has had nothing to gain and all to lose –– especially their lives.
"They have always taught and trained you to believe it to be your patriotic duty to go to war and to have yourselves slaughtered at their command. But in all the history of the world, you, the people, have never had a voice in declaring war, and strange as it certainly appears, no war by any nation in any age has ever been declared by the people.
"And here let me emphasize the fact--and it cannot be repeated too often –– that the working class that fights all the battles, the working class that makes the supreme sacrifices, the working class that freely sheds its blood and furnishes the corpses, has never yet had a voice in either declaring war or making peace.
"It is the ruling class that invariably does both. They alone declare war and they alone make peace. "Yours not to reason why; Yours but to do and die.” That is their motto, and we object on the part of the awakening workers of this nation."
From Debb’s statement to the judge before sentencing:
"Your Honor, years ago I recognized my kinship with all living beings, and I made up my mind that I was not one bit better than the meanest on earth. I said then, and I say now, that while there is a lower class, I am in it, and while there is a criminal element I am of it, and while there is a soul in prison, I am not free.
"I listened to all that was said in this court in support and justification of this prosecution, but my mind remains unchanged. I look upon the Espionage Law as a despotic enactment in flagrant conflict with democratic principles and with the spirit of free institutions"
"Your Honor, I have stated in this court that I am opposed to the social system in which we live; that I believe in a fundamental change –– but if possible by peaceable and orderly means"
The Espionage Act of 1917, though amended over the years, is still in effect. Prior to the time President Obama took office, It had been used three times for cases involving government officials providing classified information to the media. It has been used at least six times during the Obama's time in office, including against Bradley Manning. According to David Carr of the New York Times , "the majority of the recent prosecutions seem to have everything to do with administrative secrecy and very little to do with national security."
Actor Mark Ruffalo reads Debs's Canton speech [4min] :